PBOC Motorsports Club Inc at HMS  
  SATURDAY March 23, 2019  
  7:00 am GATES OPEN    
  7:15 am Registration in the Classroom Building
  8:15 am Mandatory RACERS Meeting Classroom
  Begin     Car #'s ON TRACK
  8:45 AM     All students in class
  9:00 AM 25 min   200-399 Instructor's/Solo
  9:25 AM 25 min     Race Practice
  9:50 AM 25 min   01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  10:15 AM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  10:40 AM 25 min   200-399 Instructors /Solo
  11:05 AM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  11:30 AM 25 min   01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  11:55 AM 60 min     LUNCH 
  12:55 PM 25 min     Race Qualifying
  1:20 PM 25 min   200-399 Instructors /Solo
  1:45 PM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  2:10 PM 25 min   01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  2:35 PM 60 min     Enduro Race
  3:35 PM 10 min     Track Clean up
  3:45 PM 25 min   200-399 Instructors /Solo
  4:10 PM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  4:35 PM 25 min    01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  Finish 5:00 PM      
  SUNDAY   March 24, 2019  
  7:00 am GATES OPEN    
  7:15 am Registration in the Classroom Building
  8:15 am Mandatory RACERS Meeting Classroom
  Begin     Car #'s ON TRACK
  8:45 AM     All students in Class
  9:00 AM 25 min   200-399 Instructor's/Solo
  9:25 AM 25 min   01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  9:50 AM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  10:15 AM 25 min   200-399 Instructors /Solo
  10:40 AM 25 min   01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  11:05 AM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  11:25 AM 40 min     Race 1 Sunday
  12:05 PM 55 min     LUNCH 
  1:00 PM 25 min   200-399 Instructors /Solo
  1:25 PM 25 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  1:50 PM 40 min     Race 2 Sunday
  2:30 PM 30 min   01-199 SUPER  SOLO™
  3:00 PM 30 min   200-399 Instructors /Solo
  3:30 PM 30 min   400-599 ALL STUDENTS
  4:00 PM 30 min   100/200/300 Inst/Solo/Super Solo
  FINISH 4:30 PM      

Thanks to all for attending the PBOC Winterfest ™ 2019 event at Sebring Jan 16-20, 2019

We all had a great time, and while it was cold on Thursday,  the weather was perfect for the weekend.

Over 300 participants with five days of racing and HPDE venues.

Race Results:  All results are posted at www.speedhive.com  you can search for PBOC to see all the races, practice and qualifying sessions.

They all appear under the grouping 2019 PBOC Winterfest.


Your photos are available at www.Motorimages.com  or call Lyndon Fox at 561.531.4715 and the email address lyndon@motorimages.com

Thanks to all the vendors who came to support the event as well as the great Sebring track staff and our

PBOC Corner Workers.  Thanks to Hankook Tires for their support and George at Trackside Sales and Services. 

Special thanks to Audi of North Orlando for the Pace Car.


The complete PBOC Event calendar for 2019 is posted.

Don’t Forget to mark your calendars for PBOC WINTERFEST™ 2020 at Sebring

Next Year January 15-19, 2020

5 days of Racing and Lapping Days  and 2 days of Drivers Education.

 Registration will be at www.ClubRegistration.net  in late September

MAF connected in a car.Most people know the basic premise of how an internal combustion engine operates. An air/fuel mixture enters the engine where it is ignited, exerting force on the crown of the piston, forcing the crankshaft to rotate, which in turn rotates the wheels via a transmission – all fairly basic. What many fail to consider however, is the means by which the car measures the amount of air it is taking in, in order to properly meter fuel.

In the world of fuel-injected engines, there are two popular methods of measuring airflow – speed density and mass airflow (MAF) systems.

Speed density has been around longer than MAF systems, and use a range of data to calculate airflow. The inlet air temperature and manifold pressure is measured via a manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor, which allows the ECU to calculate the density of the air present. With that data, the correct amount of fuel can also be calculated.

The car’s ECU is equipped with data called a volumetric efficiency table that allows the car to estimate how much air the engine is taking in at a given speed. An oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust stream that measures the air/fuel ratio and allows the ECU to make corrections as needed.

Because speed density systems do not directly measure airflow rates, they have become less popular for new car manufacturers, who instead use MAF sensor systems.

A MAF sensor sits directly in the intake air stream, in a section of the intake with no bends or turbulent areas – allowing for accurate air measurements. Most MAF sensors operate using a heated wire that is in turn cooled down by the incoming air. The car then sends a certain voltage to the wire to keep it at a constant temperature, and that voltage is directly proportional to the airflow into the engine. MAF-equipped cars typically still use O2 sensors in the exhaust stream as a way to check and ensure the MAF sensor is working properly.

Speed density offers an advantage in that it is better at handling high-revving engines than a MAF sensor is. Most engines – especially those of smaller displacement – that rev above 8 or 9000 RPM are better suited to speed density.

Conversely, MAF systems deal with rapidly changing environmental or engine conditions more effectively than a speed density setup.

Speed density is still preferred by many modified car enthusiasts, because tuning is simplified and because the wire within a MAF sensor can become an obstruction at very high power-levels.

Front rim of sports carWheel offset – the deceptively simple mathematical calculation that perplexes both beginning and experienced car enthusiasts alike.

In the simplest of terms, wheel offset is a measure, typically in millimeters, of how far in a set of wheels will sit within a car’s fenders. All wheels have an offset value, but what does that number actually mean in practicality?

Wheel offset is a value given in ET, or einpress tiefe, which translates from German as “insertion depth.” If you have any experience with aftermarket wheels, you’ve likely seen that they have an ET value stamped on them already. Being able to calculate this value on your own is important, however, because not all wheels are stamped with their ET values. Additionally, building a set of 2- or 3-piece modular wheels will require this calculation before assembly to ensure they fit as expected.

When measuring offset, you first need to measure the wheel’s overall width. Take that value, divide it by two, and you have the center point of the wheel’s width.

The next step is to measure from the wheel’s mounting flange – where the wheel mates up to the car’s hub, to the rear edge of the wheel. The resulting value is called “backspacing.”

From there, simply subtract that backspacing value from the center point figure to get your offset value.

  • The more positive the offset number, the deeper inside the fenders the wheels will sit. Too far positive and the wheel may foul on brake or suspension components, depending on the overall width of the wheel.
  • The more negative the offset number, the further out the wheels will sit. Wheels with offset that is too low may sit outside of the fenders, causing the tires to rub and potentially cause damage to the car’s body work.

All cars are different in terms of suspension components, fender clearance, and overall room inside the wheel wells. Using the measurements from your factory wheels is a great place to start when considering the size of your next set, but it is always a smart ides to check with people who own the same car as you to get a feel for what works and what doesn’t.

The latest iteration of the iconic Porsche 911 is finally here, and message boards and social media outlets everywhere are ablaze with comments about how it looks ‘the same’ as the last one. Porsche’s constant tweaking and refinement of the classic shape is part of what makes a 911, a 911. When you get it right the first time, why change it? This most recent 992 chassis certainly looks more aggressive than the outgoing model, however.


At first glance, the oversized front grilles make the front-end look meaner – but keen-eyed Porsche fans will also notice that the entire car is incredibly wide. In fact, the previous 991 chassis was significantly wider than the 997 before it, and this new 992 is 45-milimeters wider than that up front. Additionally, new Carrera 2 models will receive the same wide-body treatment that the higher level trims get, which is a departure from Porsche’s usual practice.

The 992’s shoes have been upsized along with the rest of the car’s proportions. The standard wheels are 20-inches in diameter up front, with massive 21-inch units out back.

Performance Figures

The base Carrera power figures haven’t been released yet, but the Carrera S leaves the factory with 444chp – mated up to an eight-speed PDK transmission and a manual transmission in the near future.

The Carrera 4S sees 0-62mph in 3.6 seconds, with the RWD-only Carrera S at 3.7 seconds, respectively. Top speeds are reported to be 191mph for the RWD Carrera S, and 190mph for the Carrera 4S.


The physical gauges in the main cluster have been partially replaced by multi-function displays that are becoming increasingly popular in new cars. There is still a traditional tachometer, and a 10.9” infotainment system graces the center control stack.

Prices for the 992 911 start at $113,200 for a Carrera S, with the Carrera 4S coming in at a base price of $120,600.

The world is moving in the direction of the electric car, there’s just no way around that. General Motors (GM) has begun to embrace the eventual shift, and has announced that they will be stopping production on six of its worst-selling models – resulting in the closure of five factories.

These closures will result in as many as 14,000 lost jobs on top of the cancelled GM models.

The Detroit-Hamtramck factory – which is iconic but has been at the center of intense controversy – is scheduled to close, along with five others. Assembly plants in Warren, Ohio and Oshawa, Ontario will be closed, a plant in Baltimore that produces transmissions will get the axe, and the Transmission Operations site in Michigan will be closing as well.

Though much of the workforce at these sites will likely be facing unemployment, negotiations are underway to find relocation options for as many people as possible.

A statement from GM reads:

“The company is transforming its global workforce to ensure it has the right skill sets for today and the future, while driving efficiencies through the utilization of best-in-class tools.

“Actions are being taken to reduce salaried and salaried contract staff by 15 percent, which includes 25 percent fewer executives to streamline decision making.”

Here are the six vehicles being dropped from GMs range due to poor and worsening sales:

  • Chevrolet Impala
  • Cadillac XTS
  • Buick LaCrosse
  • Chevrolet Volt
  • Cadillac CT6
  • Chevrolet Cruze

Notice that all of the above models are traditionally-configured sedans or hatchbacks – highlighting a shift in consumer interest.

The shift towards electric cars is certainly an indicator of a bright future for the auto industry and the world in general, but it will not be without its growing pains and casualties along the way.

Whether your car is still under warranty or you’ve got a weekend track car to keep in working order, it’s easier than you might think to start doing your own maintenance and repairs. Not only does working on your car save time and money, it’s highly educational and gives you the confidence to tackle a problem when it pops up.

Along with the will to learn, you need to be equipped with the right tools for the job. Your household DIY toolkit won’t cut it for most automotive applications, so here are some of the basics to get you started.

  1. A Quality Socket Set – This is arguably the most important aspect of a well-rounded automotive toolbox, as pretty much any job will require using a socket and ratchet of some sort. A good mechanic-oriented set will include both metric and standard (SAE) sockets, as well as ¼-inch, 3/8-inch, and ½-inch ratchets to drive those sockets. Extensions, wobble-joints, and thin-walled sockets are useful additions, but are not typically included in a starter kit.
  2. Pliers and Wiring Tools – There are nearly as many electrical projects you can take on with a car as there are mechanical jobs, and having the proper tools can make what would otherwise be a nightmare or downright impossible, into a fun process. You’ll want pliers of various sizes and shapes, as well as wire cutters and wire strippers. Quality tool manufacturers like Craftsman, Milwaukee, Matco, or Snap-on offer full ranges of hand tools for any job.
  3. Torque Wrench – Both beginners and seasoned enthusiasts alike often overlook the importance of tightening nuts and bolts to the correct torque specification. Over-torqueing a bolt can cause it to break – often causing quite a headache for whoever has to extract it, and under-torqueing a fastener can cause critical components to come loose during driving. There are tons of options, but beginners should use a basic click-type torque wrench.
  4. Wrench Set – A good set of standard wrenches is right up there in importance with a socket set. A complete set should include both metric and SAE sizes. Many manufacturers are now making wrenches with ratcheting box-ends so there’s no need to remove the wrench to reset it after every turn.
  5. Screwdrivers – You likely have screwdrivers in your household tool setup, but you will probably need to expand that when you begin working on automotive projects. A range of flathead drivers are useful for fasteners as well as acting as small prying tools, and drivers with interchangeable heads are useful for specialty fasteners found on cars.

This is by no means meant to be a comprehensive list of tools to take on any car-related project, but it is a solid foundation on which you can continue to expand your tool collection to handle whatever comes your way.

Purists, get ready to rejoice. Many enthusiasts know that Mazda announced they would be starting a factory restoration program for its iconic MX-5 back in 2017. Many will also recall that the program currently caters only to cars in Japan. Despite that, Mazda received over 600 applications by the beginning of 2018 – and the first completed example just rolled off the line.

Are you ready to step into the past?

Mazda’s first restoration is a 1992-year model MX-5 V-Special edition (marketed as a Eunos Roadster in Japan) in a classic British Racing Green over tan leather interior. The car is owned by retired farmer Keiji Nishimoto who purchased the car brand new and has been driving it all around Japan for the last 26 years with his wife. He had been planning on bringing the car back to its former glory anyways, and when he heard of Mazda’s program, he was quick to apply.

The 1992-model MX-5 originally came equipped with the smaller 1.6-liter inline-four engine, and the V-special trim was outfitted with a classic Nardi steering wheel to compliment the tan leather – all of which have been faithfully restored to like-new by Mazda. In fact, the entire car has been restored to look like it just rolled off the assembly line in 1992 – factory color-matched hardtop and all.

We’re not sure if every MX-5 owner is in for the same treatment, but the Mazda restoration team gave Nishimoto a tour of their factory and facilities before delivering his car.

When asked what he plans on doing with the car, Nishimoto replied: “I plan to drive it for another 25 years.”

Currently, the MX-5 restoration program is only for cars in Japan, but with the huge number of NA Miatas around the world, we doubt we’re the only ones hoping they will expand the program worldwide – or at least to North America.

Mid-engine cars are often thought about only in their most exotic forms: new Ferraris, Lamborghinis, McLarens, and other supercars. While it is true that some of the highest performance cars on the market today have their engines behind the cockpit, you don’t necessarily have to spend six-figures to get that exotic look and feel in a sports car.

Here are some of the best mid-engine sports cars you can buy for a (relatively) low cost.

Honda Beat

What was once a small city car – called a Kei car – meant for the streets of Japan, the convertible Honda Beat is now old enough for import into the US, and is quickly becoming popular among enthusiasts. Affordable price, convertible top, mid-engine configuration, and a 9000-rpm redline from the tiny three-cylinder engine make this a recipe for a fun time. You can find them for under $6000 right now.

Autozam AZ-1

Much like the Honda Beat, the Autozam AZ-1 recently became legal for importation under the 25-year law, and is quickly becoming desirable among collectors and enthusiasts. The car features gull-wing style doors like the Mercedes SLS and other exotic supercars and a mid-engine layout that make it a blast to drive. Prices are higher than the Honda Beat, and those numbers are expected to climb significantly over time. If you want in, now is the time.

Toyota MR2

The MR2 has to be on this list. You can find any one of the three generations of this car for sale in your local classifieds for next to nothing. Combine that with legendary Toyota reliability and you have a recipe for a fun, worry-free little sports car. Clean examples can be found for under $6000.

Porsche Boxster – 986

Many people never quite warmed up to the late ‘90s and early ‘00s Porsche Boxster because of its unique styling and ‘fried-egg’ headlights. Beyond that though, the 986-generation Boxster is a fantastic handling mid-engine car with a ton of potential. For under $10,000 you can get yourself a convertible Porsche that is track-ready right away.

Porsche Cayman – 987

For those who want the value Porsche experience but would rather not have a convertible, the first-generation Cayman is beginning to fall under the $20,000 mark for higher-mileage examples. For that money though, you get a driving experience worth three-times the price.

Autocross is one of the most popular ways for the everyday enthusiast to get into motorsport. Autocross is low-risk, low-speed, and high-fun, but choosing the right car for the job can be overwhelming. Here are some great places to start your search for the perfect autocross machine.

Volkswagen GTI

Many people choose to have one car serve both daily-driver and autocross duties. If that applies to you, there are few options better than the Volkswagen GTI. It has enough space to haul everything you need on a daily basis, they are incredibly reliable, and their handling is superb. Even brand new GTIs can be had for a reasonable price, with used and older-generation models available for a steal.

Subaru WRX

The WRX has long offered great performance value for the money. With all-wheel-drive, a turbocharged boxer-engine, and enough space to fit the kids in the back – what more could you ask for? Clean examples can be had for well under $20,000.

Mazda Miata

No list of autocross cars would be complete without the icon that is the Mazda Miata. This car single-handedly saved the roadster from extinction, and features one of the most competent chassis of any production car. Couple that with timeless styling, fierce reliability, and a low price tag, and it comes as no surprise that these are found at nearly every autocross event across the country. They even have their own racing series.

Honda S2000

Much of what makes the Mazda Miata a performance icon is shared with the Honda S2000. A finely-tuned chassis, roadster configuration, and some actual power under the hood make this car a serious contender at nearly every autocross event. They’ve held their value well, but clean examples can be had for just a shade over $10,000.

C5 Corvette

Whether you buy the base model with the “lowly” 350-horsepower LS1 engine, or the Zo6 with a healthy 405-horsepower, the fact remains that the C5-generation Corvette represents one of the most popular high-horsepower autocross cars in existence. Simple yet highly effective suspension, a low curb weight, and plenty of muscle make these Corvettes capable of some serious lap times. Examples are dropping below the $10,000 mark at this point.